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First aid tips
How to do chest heart compressions
Chest cardiac compression is a first aid method that uses artificial methods to make the heart beat again when the heart stops. 立即进行胸外心脏按压，具体方法如下： Cardiac chest compressions should be performed immediately after the heart is stopped , as follows:
1. Quickly place the patient in a supine position, lay flat on the ground or on a hard board, unfasten the collar, and tilt the head back to open the airway. 并得到氧气。 The rescuer knelt (or stood) on the left side of the patient, first blowing a few breaths to the patient to keep the airway open and get oxygen.
2. The compression site is the junction of the middle 1/3 of the sternum and the lower 1/3.
3. Keep the base of the left palm close to the compression area, and place the root of the right palm on the back of the left hand so that all fingers are off the chest wall.
4. The rescuer's arms should be straight, with his shoulders directly above the patient's chest, and press down firmly. 有规则，不能间断，下压与放松的时间大致相等。 Compression should be smooth, regular, and not interrupted. The time for depression and relaxation is approximately equal.
5. Number of compressions: 80-100 times per minute for adults; 100 times per minute for children; 120 times per minute for babies.
6. Depth of compression: 4 cm to 5 cm for sternum depression in adults, 3 cm for children, and 2 cm for infants.
压就行了，位置要高一点，靠近乳头连线中点上方一指。 7. To press the child's heart, just press the palm of your hand firmly against the compression area, and the baby only needs to press the middle and index fingers in the compression area . The position should be higher, close to the middle point of the nipple.
8. While performing chest compressions, perform mouth-to-mouth artificial respiration. 口吹气 2次，然后立即进行心脏按压15次，再吹气2次，又再按压15次；如 果有两人抢救，则一人先吹气 1次，另一人按压心脏5次，接着吹气1次，再 按压 5次，如此反复进行，直至有医务人员赶到现场。 When there is only one rescuer, first blow the mouth 2 times, and then immediately perform heart compression 15 times, then 2 times, and then 15 times again; if two people are rescued, one person first blows once, The other person presses the heart 5 times, then blows it once, and then presses it 5 times. This is repeated until a medical staff arrives at the scene.
9, the pressure of the heart can not be too strong to prevent rib fractures or other visceral injuries. 红润，呼吸心跳恢复，能摸到脉搏跳动，瞳孔回缩正常，抢救就算成功了。 If the patient's face turns rosy, the breathing heartbeat recovers, the pulse can be felt, the pupil retracts normally, and the rescue is successful. 抢救中应密切注意观察呼吸、脉搏、瞳孔等。 Therefore, pay close attention to breathing, pulse, pupils, etc. during rescue.
1. Mouth-to-mouth or (nose) blowing method: This method is simple and easy to grasp, and the amount of gas exchange is large, which is close to or equal to the amount of gas breathed by normal people. It works well for adults and children.
(1) The patient takes the supine position, that is, the chest and abdomen are facing the sky.
(2) The ambulance person stands on the side of his head, takes a deep breath, raises the patient's jaw, keeps the airway open, and blows the gas at the injured patient's mouth (the two mouths must be tight and not leaking). , Causing inhalation. In order to prevent air from leaking out of the nostrils, you can pinch the nostrils with one hand, then the rescuer's mouth leaves, release the pinched nostrils, and press the chest with one hand to help exhale. This is repeated 14 to 16 times per minute.
(必须堵住口)即为口对鼻吹气。 If the patient has severe trauma to the mouth or the teeth are closed tightly, the nose can be blown (the mouth must be blocked) , which is called mouth-to-nose blow. The strength of the rescuer's blowing power depends on the specific circumstances of the patient. Generally, after blowing air, the patient's rib cage is slightly raised. Between mouth to mouth, if there is gauze, put a layer of thick gauze or a layer of thin handkerchief, but be careful not to affect the air in and out.
2. Prone pressure back method: This method is more commonly used, but it is an older method in artificial respiration. Because the patient is in the prone position, the tongue can fall out slightly without blocking the respiratory tract. The rescuer does not have to deal with the tongue specifically, saving time (it is not easy to pull the tongue out and fix it in a very short time). Perform artificial respiration. The amount of gas paralysis is smaller than the mouth-to-mouth blowing method, but the rescue success rate is higher than the several artificial breathing methods mentioned below. At present, this method is often used at the scene when rescued by electric shock and drowning. However, this method is not suitable for pregnant women and those with fractures of the chest and back.
(1) The injured patient takes the prone position, that is, the chest and abdomen are on the ground, the abdomen can be slightly raised, the head is tilted to one side, the two arms extend over the head, one arm rests under the head, and the other arm extends outward to make the thorax expansion.
(2) The ambulance person faces his head, knees bent on both sides of the injured patient's thigh, knees, and puts his hands flat on the lower corner of his back scapula (approximately equal to the seventh pair of ribs), left and right spine, thumbs close to spine , The other four fingers slightly opened slightly.
(3) The rescuer leans forward and slowly compresses downwards. The direction of the force is to push down and slightly forward. When the ambulance's shoulders and the patient's shoulders will be in line, no more effort is needed. In the process of pushing downwards and forwards, the air in the lungs is pushed out to form exhalation. Then slowly invaded and relaxed to turn around and let outside air enter the lungs, forming inhalation.
(4) Repeat the rhythmically, 14 to 16 times per minute.
3． Supine chest compression method: This method is convenient to observe the patient's expression, and the gas exchange volume is close to the normal breathing volume. However, the biggest drawback is that the injured person's tongue fell down because of lying on his back, hindering air in and out. Therefore, when doing this method, press out your tongue. This position is not suitable for drowning, chest trauma, and fractured ribs.
(1) The patient takes a supine position, and the back can be slightly cushioned to make the chest bulge.
(2) The rescuer kneels on both sides of the patient's thigh, puts his hands under the breasts (equivalent to the sixth and seventh pairs of ribs), with his thumb inward, near the lower end of the sternum, and the other four points outwards on the ribs of the thorax. .
(3) Press down slightly forward, and its direction, strength, and operation method are the same as those of the prone back pressing method.
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation illustration
Check the patient for consciousness. 110，120报案，同时回到患者身旁。 If you are unconscious, call 110 or 120 and return to the patient. The 120 emergency center can provide telephone help to help you complete the CPR (Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation) procedure.
Tilt the patient's head down and listen to the patient for breathing. If the patient is not breathing normally, lift the patient's nose, cover the patient's mouth with your mouth, and start to blow until you see the patient's chest undulate. Take two breaths for two seconds each.
If the patient still does not breathe, cough or move normally, start a chest massage. 1.5到2吋，以每分钟一百下的速度來进行连续15次的胸腔按压。 Depress the chest cavity between the nipples 1.5 to 2 inches, and perform 15 consecutive chest compressions at a rate of 100 beats per minute.
15次的胸腔按摩，直到病人苏醒为止。 Continue to give two blows and 15 chest massages until the patient wakes up.
CPR和双人CPR的速度是相同的。 Note: The speed of single CPR and double CPR is the same. The two-person CPR only divides the actions of mouth-to-mouth artificial breathing and chest massage into two persons.
PS: Note: Continue to cycle at a speed of compression: blow = 15: 2.
Remove obstacles in the airways
--Assuming you see any foreign objects in your throat or mouth, remove them first.
話 继续下面的步骤 1. See if the patient can breathe or cough, if not , continue to the next step
2. Repeatedly use abdominal push (Hamlick method) until the foreign body is removed.
3. Chest compressions can also be used on patients who are overweight or at the end of pregnancy.
4. When the above method does not work, it should be sent to the ENT department of the hospital as soon as possible, and the foreign body should be taken out under the laryngoscope or bronchoscope. Do not delay. If an adult or child is unconscious, CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) is performed immediately.
Poisoning first aid
1. If the poisoning occurs through the mouth, firstly, the respiratory tract of the wounded should be kept clear, and the amount and time of the poisoned substance and the patient's intake should be determined. Emetic vomiting can accelerate the excretion of poisons. Stimulation of the victim's drape, throat, or drinking water can help vomiting. However, if the victim is unconscious, hysterical, or corrosive and petroleum products are swallowed, it should not be induced. Activated carbon can be used after vomiting to help absorb large amounts of material, preferably water-soluble activated carbon. Drinking water or milk to the injured person can dilute the poison, but if the injured person is seriously unconscious or hysterical, no drinking water should be given. In addition, some cases of poisoning, such as pesticide or pesticide poisoning, should not allow patients to drink milk.
2. If it is poisoned through the respiratory tract, the rescuer must first prevent the poisonous gas from spreading to himself, quickly take the injured person to a ventilated place, loosen clothes that are too tight, remove foreign bodies in the respiratory tract, make sure that the breathing is smooth, and straighten the patient's body, Lie on your side, and if breathing stops, perform artificial respiration immediately.
3. If it is poisoned through the skin and mucous membranes, the poisoned part should be washed with cold water first, and then the wounded's clothes should be removed. The rescuer should not touch the patient directly to avoid spreading it. If the patient's respiratory organs have been paralyzed, the population cannot be breathed. If poison enters the eyes, it should be quickly washed with a large amount of physiological saline, and the patient should open the eyes for several minutes to help tears.
4. Treatment of food poisoning includes wrapping the patient's vomit or poison and sending it to the hospital for examination; secondly, fasting and injecting drips to replenish water to prevent dehydration. And should closely observe the patient's physiological changes.
5. If the snake bites, don't panic and run, it is best to keep still, and it is best to identify what kind of snake bite. The rescuer should lay the injured person down and use an elastic bandage or handkerchief on the upper end of the wound ( Rest on the heart), relax every twenty to thirty minutes, and then go to the doctor quickly. If you are bitten by a poisonous insect, you can apply a cold compress and then go to the doctor quickly.
‧ Fever First Aid Method‧
Provides two first aid methods:
1. Wipe bath method:
30%的酒精于四肢、头部、额部、胸背部、股沟处擦浴，每次5-15分钟，擦至皮肤发红为止。 Move the fever patient to a ventilated place, and rub 30% alcohol on the extremities, head, forehead, chest back, and groin, rubbing for 5-15 minutes each time until the skin becomes red. If necessary, wipe it every 30 minutes. If alcohol-free, you can add white wine and a little water instead.
2, ice method:
3-5分换一次。 Use ice pillow or towel to soak cold water on the above area, and change the cold compress every 3-5 minutes.
Burns First Aid
The most important thing in first aid for burns is to reduce the effect of heat on the skin. Immediately after a burn, place the wound under running water. Rinse with a large amount of cold water for more than ten minutes. After the flushing, you must go to the doctor for emergency treatment and keep it stable to avoid swelling or breathing difficult. Care must be taken not to take off the wounded's clothes and do not apply any medicine to the wound.
Heatstroke First Aid Act
1、先兆中暑，患者在高温环境中劳动或活动一定时间后，出现头昏、头晕、头痛、口渴、多汗、全身疲乏、心悸、注意力不集中、动作不协调等症状，体温正常或略高。 Heatstroke is most likely to occur in high-temperature or sweltering environments. The degree of heatstroke is divided into three levels: 1. Threatened heatstroke. After working or active in a high-temperature environment for a certain period of time, patients experience dizziness, dizziness, headache, thirst, Symptoms such as sweating, general fatigue, palpitations, inattention, and uncoordinated movements are normal or slightly warmer. 2. Mild heatstroke, in addition to the above symptoms, appeared flushing, a lot of sweating, rapid pulse and other symptoms, body temperature rose to above 38.5 ℃. 3. Severe heat stroke, including the manifestations of three types of heat stroke, heat cramps and heat failure, fainting or convulsions, body temperature above 40 ℃, if not handled in time, it is easy to cause systemic failure and lead to death.
First aid steps are as follows:
1. Move the patient to a ventilated place to rest and unbutton his clothes to allow the body to dissipate heat.
2. Supplement water: please provide patients with adequate water. If excessive sweating or blushing occurs, salty drinks should be given.
Fracture first aid method
If the fracture is suspected but cannot be judged by appearance, but there is any pain or inability to move, first aid is needed to treat the fracture.
抢救生命： 保证意识存在，呼吸畅通。 1. Rescuing lives: ensuring that consciousness exists and breathing is unobstructed.
止血 ：如有伤口或开放性骨折出血，应以干净布巾包扎止血，但不可把骨头外露处复回伤口内。 2. Hemostasis : If there is bleeding from the wound or open fracture, the hemostasis should be wrapped with a clean cloth, but the exposed part of the bone should not be returned to the wound.
固定 ：不可让骨折部位脱节，亦不可试行复位用适当副木来固定，用夹板固定患处附近及两端关节 ,夹板须超出两端关节(无夹板时,以硬板、竹板或折迭的报纸代替)。 3. Fixation : Do not allow the fracture site to be disjointed, or try to reduce it with appropriate auxiliary wood. Use splints to fix the joints near the affected area and the joints at both ends. Newspapers instead).
快速运送医院 4.Fast delivery to hospital
Electric shock first aid method
,身体也会有局部灼伤情形 Strong current passes through the body, which may cause violent death or fainting due to shock , and the body may also have local burns
1. Turn off the power and make sure the injured person is insulated.
2. Call an ambulance immediately when you lose consciousness and try to wake the patient.
3. Check the patient's breathing and heartbeat. If there is no breathing heartbeat, perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation (burns will be treated later).
4. The range of burns is small and severe, so let the doctor handle it.
5. Medical treatment: For safety reasons, you should get medical treatment as soon as possible.
Drowning First Aid
When someone is drowning, do not rush into the water. The rescue tool is the ideal way. If the drowning person is still conscious, the most important thing is to try to keep his head on the water. If the drowning person has lost consciousness, he must lie on his back and lift his head above the water to keep his breath open.
After the drowning person is rescued, the dirt in his mouth must be removed. If the breathing is stopped, artificial mouth-to-mouth breathing is performed. If the heart stops beating, a cardiac massage should be performed immediately. It should not be wrapped with felt when rescued for drowning people, keep cool to prevent hypoxia caused by rapid metabolism.
The rescuer must pay attention to distinguishing whether the drowning person drinks fresh water or seawater to help the medical staff make judgments in the treatment.
8%，男性略高于女性。 The blood volume of normal adults is about 8% of body weight , and men are slightly higher than women. If blood loss exceeds 1500CC, it will soon lead to shock. Severe aortic bleeding may die within a minute.
‧Provide the following four hemostatic methods:
1. Direct compression hemostasis (venous bleeding): Directly press the wound or around the wound with a clean cloth (please replace with a new cloth when it is wet), and try to avoid using hand pressure to stop bleeding to prevent bacterial infection.
2. Hemostasis method
3. Tourniquet hemostasis method (applicable to aortic hemorrhage of the extremities): Use a special tourniquet or a wide cloth strip, towel, rubber tube, etc., to pierce the bleeding site near the body. The arm is tied to the upper third of the upper arm when bleeding, and the lower leg is tied to 10 cm below the groin when bleeding. Loose the band every 15-20 minutes for 15 seconds to prevent local tissue necrosis or downstream nerve damage caused by poor blood circulation.
4. Raise the hemostatic method: lift the injured part to a position higher than the heart.
,稍向后用力,头稍前倾,压迫约5～10分钟,同时张口呼吸,不要吞咽.勿将血液吞入胃内,以免引起恶心、呕吐.适用于家庭或紧急止血. Simple hemostasis method: Shiatsu nasal hemostasis pinch both sides of the nose with your thumb and forefinger , press back slightly, tilt your head forward, and press for about 5 to 10 minutes while breathing. Do not swallow. Do not swallow blood. To prevent nausea and vomiting, it is suitable for home or emergency hemostasis.
,但鼻腔填塞仍是目前常用的方法.该法是通过压迫出血血管,使其闭塞,从而达到止血的目的.适用于较剧烈的鼻出血,经烧灼、明胶海绵贴敷、微波等方法治疗无效者,或出血猛烈无法判断出血部位者. Packing and hemostasis: There are many hemostatic methods for treating severe nosebleeds , but nasal stuffing is still the commonly used method. This method is to compress the bleeding blood vessels and occlude them to achieve the purpose of hemostasis. It is suitable for more severe nosebleeds. Cauterization, gelatin sponge application, microwave and other methods are not effective for treatment, or severe bleeding can not determine the bleeding site.
Basic care for eye injuries
The correct treatment of eye injuries caused by accidental injuries can avoid vision loss, because it is difficult to determine the degree of eye damage, so as soon as the initial treatment is completed, you should seek medical treatment immediately and send it to an ophthalmologist, your family doctor, or the nearest hospital immediately. Emergency room. First aid treatment is very important for eye recovery:
Fine pieces in the eyes: Do not rub the fine pieces or particles in the eyes, pull up the upper eyelids over the lower eyelids and let the eyelashes brush down the thin pieces on the inner surface of the upper eyelids, blink a few times to remove the particles in the eyes. The film remains, close your eyes and seek medical attention.
15分钟来减少疼痛和肿胀，若有眼球变黑或眼睛模糊通常是眼内伤害的信号，立刻去看你的眼科医师。 Eye Impact: Immediately apply ice for 15 minutes to reduce pain and swelling. If your eyes are darkened or your eyes are blurred, it is usually a sign of eye damage. See your eye doctor immediately.
Cuts to the eyes and eyelids: Gently bandage the eyes and seek medical attention immediately. Do not try to rinse or remove objects stuck in the eyes with water. Never put any pressure on the injured eyes or eyelids, and be careful not to rub eye.
15分钟，慢慢的且是持续的，尽量转动眼球使化学物能洗出，不要使用眼罩，也不要包扎眼睛，当上述步骤处理完之后，要立刻求医。 Chemical burns: Rinse immediately with water, use your fingers to make your eyes as wide as possible, place your head under a faucet or pour it into your eyes for at least 15 minutes from any clean container of water , slowly and continuously , Try to rotate the eyeballs so that the chemicals can be washed out, do not use eye masks, do not bandage the eyes, after the above steps are processed, you should seek medical treatment immediately.